Birds

This page is organized by family, according to the cladistic analysis in The Tree of Life, and includes all the birds which you might see in Massachusetts. Since Lexington isn't on the shore, in deep woods, and doesn't have huge, open areas, I'm not optimistic that I'll ever get photos of all of these without making field trips.

Cathartidae (New World Vultures)

Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture) (Whipple Hill, 5/8/11 3pm)

Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, & Old-World Vultures)

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)

Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)

Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)

Accipiter cooperiiAccipiter cooperiiAccipiter cooperiiAccipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk) (Lower Vine Brook, 8/2/09 6pm)

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)

Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)

Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)

Buteo jamaicensisadult immature Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed hawk) (Willard's Woods, 5/9/09 1pm, , 10/27/12 1pm, Parker Meadow, 8/11/07 4pm, Lower Vine Brook, 5/7/16 1pm) I had no idea that hawks could swivel their heads 180 degrees, but it seemed very comfortable looking straight back over it's back.

Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)

Pandionidae (Osprey)

Pandion haliaeus (Osprey)

Falconidae (Falcons)

Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)

Falco columbarius (Merlin)

Phasianidae (Grouse, Pheasant, & Turkey)

Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)

Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)

Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) Asian import

TurkeysFemale TurkeyMale TurkeyMale Turkey HeadMeleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkeys) (Lexington, 3/24/2001) Turkey nestNest (Lexington, 5/1/07 8pm) My Mother found this nest under the forsythia bush next to our driveway. The turkey that laid the eggs apparently abandoned the nest, probably because it became scared of the car and people. Bird books say that turkeys usually lay one to two eggs per day, so it would have had to come back for about a week. We never saw it!

Columbidae (Pigeons & Doves)

Columba livia (Rock Dove, City Pigeon)

Mourning DoveZenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) (Burlington, 1/23/00)

Cuculidae (Cuckoos)

Coccyzus americanus (Yellow-billed Cuckoo)

Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Black-billed Cuckoo)

Strigidae (Typical Owls)

Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl)

Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)

Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)

Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)

Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)

Barred OwlStrix varia (Barred Owl) (Willard's Woods 12/28/2001, Lower Vine Brook, 8/1/15 1pm) In the photo in Willard's Woods, I was hoping to get a picture with the tree trunk behind the owl so that the cloudy sky background didn't wash out the colors, but a big, noisy dog and its owner scared my subject away.

(Lower Vine Brook, 3/16/14 4pm) An owl pellet.

Tytonidae (Barn Owls & Masked Owls)

Tyto alba (Barn Owl)

Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)

Caprimulgus vociferus (Whip-poor-will)

Chordeiles minor (Common Nighthawk)

Apodidae (Swifts)

Chaetura pelagica (Chimney Swift)

Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)

Archilochus colubrisArchilochus colubrisfemale Ruby-Throated Hummingbirdmale Archilochus colubris (Ruby-Throated Hummingbird) (female Lower Vine Brook, 8/16/09, on Lobelia, 8/21/16 5pm; male Lexington, 5/8/04 over Phlox)

Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

KingfisherKingfisherKingfisherCeryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher) (Parker Meadow, 8/4/07 5pm)

Picidae (Woodpeckers)

Colaptes auratusColaptes auratusColaptes auratusColaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) (Lexington, first 3 8/24/16, 6/2/09 9am, 5/12/09 9am, 8/29/09 12pm)

Melanerpes carolinusMelanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) (Lower Vine Brook, 2/17/10 12pm)

Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker)

Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker)

Downy Woodpeckermale Picoides pubescensfemale Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) (Burlington, 3/1/00, Lexington 4/28/07 12pm)

Picoides villosusfemale Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) (Willard's Woods, 5/9/09 12pm)

damage to tree from Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) (Lower Vine Brook, 4/23/09 11am)

Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)

Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)

Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)

Contopus virens (Eastern Wood-Pewee)

Contopus borealis (Olive-sided Flycatcher)

Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) (Lower Vine Brook, 10/1/11 12pm)

Empidonax minimus (Least Flycatcher)

Empidonax virescens (Acadian Flycatcher)

Empidonax traillii (Willow Flycatcher)

Empidonax alnorum (Alder Flycatcher)

Eremphila alpestris (Horned Lark)

Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow) (Willard's Woods, 5/14/00) A lousy photo, but all I've got.

Progne subis (Purple Martin)

Riparia riparia (Bank Swallow)

Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Northern Rough-winged Swallow)

Hirundo pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow)

Hirundo rusticaHirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)Hirundo rusticaHirundo rusticajuveniles? (Willard's Woods, 6/24/07 11am)

Corvidae (Jays, Crows, & Magpies)

Cyanocitta cristataCyanocitta cristataCyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) egg (Lexington, 12/28/09 11am, Lower Vine Brook, 5/1/11 2pm)

Corvus brachyrhynchosCorvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) (Lower Vine Brook, 2/6/10 11am)

Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow)

Paridae (Titmice & Chickadees)

Tufted Tit MouseParus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) (Burlington, 11/12/00)

Parus atricapilluschickadeeParus atricapillus (Black-Capped Chickadee) (Lower Vine Brook, 11/1/09 6pm, Lexington)

Certhiidae (Creepers)

Certhia americanaCerthia americana (Brown Creeper) (Whipple Hill, 9/1/09 1pm)

Sittidae (Nuthatches)

White-Breasted NuthatchWhite Breasted NuthatchSitta carolinensis (White-Breasted Nuthatch) (Lexington, Burlington, 1/23/00)

Red-Breasted NuthatchSitta canadensis (Red-Breasted Nuthatch) (Lexington, 11/12/2001)

Troglodytidae (Wrens)

Troglodytes aedonTroglodytes aedon? (House Wren) (Lower Vine Brook, 5/16/09 4pm)

Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)

WrenThyrothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren) (Lexington) We had a family fledge 2 chicks in a watering can in our garage this year (2008). I didn't take any pictures for fear of bothering them.

Cistothorus palustris (Marsh Wren)

Cistothorus platensis (Sedge Wren)

Muscicapidae (Thrushes)

Regulus satrapa (Golden-crowned Kinglet)

Regulus calendula (Ruby-crowned Kinglet)

Polioptila caerulea (Blue-gray Gnatcatcher)

Sialia sialisSialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) (Willard's Woods, 4/20/02 1pm) This bird doesn't look like it has enough red on the breast to be a bluebird, but I can't figure out what else it could be. Admittedly, not a great photo, but it's all I have.

Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush)

Veery?Catharus fuscescens? (Veery) (Willard's Woods, 5/7/00)

Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush)

Catharus guttatusCatharus guttatusCatharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) (Lower Vine Brook, 4/11/10 1pm)

Turdus migratoriusadult male juvenile female Turdus migratorius (American Robin) (Lexington, 11/12/01, Lower Vine Brook, 10/20/12 11am)

Laniidae (Shrikes)

Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)

Mimidae (Mimic Thrushes)

Dumetella carolinensisDumetella carolinensis (Gray catbird) (Lower Vine Brook, 5/16/09 4pm)

Mimus polyglottosMimus polyglottosMimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) (Dunback Meadow, 5/19/09 10am)

Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher)

Bombycillidae (Waxwings)

Cedar WaxwingBombycilla cedrorumBombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) (Whipple Hill, 8/31/08 2pm, Willard's Woods, 8/27/09 3pm, Lexington, 6/9/13 12pm) At Locke Pond in Whipple Hill, a group of 5-8 were flying out over the pond catching insects and then returning to perches on the edge of the pond, or on clumps of vegetation in the pond. The bird in the last photo came to our backyard while we were eating lunch on the patio.

Sturnidae (Starlings)

European StarlingFlying StarlingSturnus vulgaris (European Starling) (Burlington, 1/23/00)

Vireonidae (Vireos)

Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo)

Vireo flavifrons (Yellow-throated Vireo)

Vireo solitarius (Solitary Vireo)

Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)

Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo)

Emberizidae (Warblers & Sparrows)

Vermivora chrysoptera (Golden-winged Warbler)

Vermivora ruficapillaVermivora ruficapillaVermivora ruficapillaVermivora ruficapilla? (Nashville Warbler) (Willard's Woods, 8/28/09 3pm)

Parula americana (Northern Parula)

Mniotilta varia (Black-and-white Warbler)

Dendroica caerulescens (Black-throated Blue Warbler) (Whipple Hill, 6/1/14 10am)

Dendroica fusca (Blackburnian Warbler)

Dendroica pensylvanicaDendroica pensylvanicaDendroica pensylvanica (Chestnut-sided Warbler) (Willard's Woods, 8/28/09 3pm)

Dendroica tigrina (Cape May Warbler)

Dendroica magnolia (Magnolia Warbler)

male Dendroica coronata (Yellow-rumped warbler) (Lower Vine Brook, 4/25/09 4pm, Willard's Woods, 5/7/00, Lower Vine Brook, 4/30/16 12pm)

Black-throated greenblackthroated greenblackthroated greenDendroica virens? (Black-Throated Green Warbler) (Willard's Woods, 5/6/00)

Dendroica discolor (Prairie Warbler)

Dendroica striata (Blackpoll Warbler)

Dendroica pinus (Pine Warbler)

Dendroica palmarum (Palm Warbler) (Lower Vine Brook, 4/12/14 11am) Chestnut-colored cap was very evident in person, but harder to see in the photo. I needed my 300 mm zoom lens...

Dendroica petechiaDendroica petechia (Yellow Warbler) (Dunback Meadow, 5/19/09 11am, Willard's Woods, 6/17/07 2pm)

Oporornis philadelphia (Mourning Warbler)

Wilsonia canadensis (Canada Warbler)

Helmitheros vermivorus (Worm-eating Warbler)

Seiurus aurocapillus (Ovenbird) (Lower Vine Brook, 5/11/14 10am)

Seiurus motacilla (Louisiana Waterthrush)

Seiurus noveboracensis (Northern Waterthrush)

Geothlypis trichasmale Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat) (Dunback Meadow, 5/19/09 11am, Lower Vine Brook, 5/11/14 10am)

Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat)

Setophaga ruticilla (American Redstart)

female Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) (Parker's Meadow, 6/28/07 11am)

Cardinalis cardinalismale Cardinalis cardinalisCardinalis cardinalisfemale Cardinalis cardinalis (Cardinal) (Lexington, 12/28/09 11am, Lexington, 12/24/2009 1pm, 2/18/10 5pm)

Passerina cyanea1st spring male Passerina cyaneamale Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) (Willard's Woods, 6/6/09 1pm, 8/28/09 2pm, not shown 5/18/03 11am)

Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Rufous-sided Towhee)

Ammodramus savannarum (Grasshopper Sparrow)

Ammodramus henslowii (Henslow's Sparrow)

Ammodramus caudacutus (Sharp-tailed Sparrow)

Ammodramus maritimus (Seaside Sparrow)

Pooecetes gramineus (Vesper Sparrow)

Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow)

song sparrowMelospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) (Lexington 12/26/2001)

Spizella arborea (American Tree Sparrow)

Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow)

Chipping SparrowSpizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow) (Lexington)

Junco hyemalisJunco hyemalisJunco hyemalis (Dark-Eyed Junco) (Lexington, 12/24/09 1pm, 2/6/10 11am)

white-breasted sparrowZonotrichia albicollis (White-breasted sparrow) (Lexington, 1/27/01)

Fox sparrowPasserella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) (Lexington)

Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow)

Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)

Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting)

Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Bobolink)

Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark)

male Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-Winged Blackbird) (Willard's Woods, 5/9/09 1pm)

Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird)

Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)

Quiscalus quisculaQuiscalus quiscula (Common grackle) (Lexington, 6/6/09 11am)

Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole)

baltimore oriole flyingmale Icterus galbulaIcterus galbulafemale Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) I've seen several, but they have proved stubbornly difficult to photograph. They cleverly hide or fly away just as I get ready for a picture. (Whipple Hill, 5/13/00, Willard's Woods, 5/9/09 1pm)

Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager)

Passeridae (Weavers)

Passer domesticusPasser domesticusPasser domesticus (House Sparrow) (Lower Vine Brook, 8/16/09 5pm)

Fringillidae (Finches)

Carduelis pinus (Pine Siskin)

Carduelis tristisbreeding male Goldfinch (12/26/01)Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch) (Lexington, 5/16/09 5pm, Lexington, 12/27/01)

Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill)

Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)

Common RedpollCarduelis flammea (Common Redpoll) (Burlington, 2/21/00)

Carpodacus purpureus (Purple Finch)

Carpodacus mexicanusCarpodacus mexicanus (House Finch) (Lexington, 11/21/09 4pm)

Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak)

Anatidae (Swans, Geese, & Ducks)

Branta canadensisBranta canadensis (Canada Goose) (Whipple Hill, 9/1/09 1pm)

Branta bernicla (Brant Goose)

Cygnus olor (Mute Swan)

Anas  platyrhynchosmale Aix sponsafemale juvenile Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard Duck) (Willard's Woods, 4/28/07 11am, Whipple Hill, 8/4/07 5pm, Parker Meadow, 8/20/12 11am, Lower Vine Brook, 5/26/13 4pm)

Anas rubripes (American Black Duck)

Anas strepera (Gadwall)

Anas crecca (Green-winged Teal)

Anas americana (American Wigeon)

Anas penelope (Eurasian Wigeon)

Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)

Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal)

Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck)

Aix sponsamale Aix sponsa (Wood duck) female immature? (Whipple Hill, 9/23/07 12pm, 8/1/10 1pm, & 7/29/07 1pm)

Aythya valisineria (Canvasback)

Aythya americana (Redhead)

Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) (Whipple Hill, 4/9/11 1pm)

Aythya marila (Greater Scaup)

Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup)

Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)

Somateria spectabilis (King Eider)

Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)

Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter)

Melanitta perspicillata (Surf Scoter)

Histrionicus histrionicus (Harlequin Duck)

Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)

Bucephala islandica (Barrow's Goldeneye)

Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)

Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead)

Mergus merganser (Common Merganser)

Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)

Lophodytes cucullatus (Hooded Merganser)

Gaviidae (Loons)

Gavia immer (Common Loon)

Podicipediformes (Grebes)

Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)

Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)

Podilymbus podiceps (Pied-billed Grebe)

Procellariidae (Shearwaters)

Calonectris diomedea (Cory's Shearwater)

Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)

Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)

Puffinus gravis (Greater Shearwater)

Puffinus puffinus (Manx Shearwater)

Hydrobatidae (Storm Petrels)

Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson's Storm-Petrel)

Oceanodroma leucohoa (Leach's Storm-Petrel)

Pelecanidae (Pelicans)

Pelecanus occidentalis (Brown Pelican)

Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)

Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)

Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)

Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)

Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)

Ardeidae (Herons)

Ixobrychus exilis (Least Bittern)

Botaurus lentiginosus (American Bittern)

Nycticorax nycticorax (Black-crowned Night-Heron)

Nyctanassa violacea (Yellow-crowned Night-Heron)

Butorides striatus (Green-backed Heron) (Parker Meadow, 7/29/07 1pm, Lower Vine Brook, 10/1/11 12pm)

Egretta tricolor (Tri-colored Heron)

Egretta caerulea (Little Blue Heron)

Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret)

Egretta thula (Snowy Egret)

Casmerodius albus (Great Egret)

Ardea herodiasArdea herodias (Great Blue Heron) (Whipple Hill, 9/23/07 12pm, Lower Vine Brook, 8/28/13 1pm, Whipple Hill 8/20/16 12pm) I had never seen one on the ground anywhere except in the immediate vicinity of a pond before, such as the one in the first photo. There is a stream about 75 yards away, but it is protected by a thin screen of trees.

Threskiornithidae (Ibises & Spoonbills)

Plegadis falcinellus (Glossy Ibis)

Eudocimus albus (White Ibis)

Rallidae (Rails and Coots)

Rallus elegans (King Rail)

Rallus longirostris (Clapper Rail)

Rallus limicola (Virginia Rail)

Porzana carolina (Sora)

Coturnicops noveboracensis (Yellow Rail)

Gallinula chloropus (Common Moorhen)

Fulica americana (American Coot)

Charadriidae (Plovers)

Charadrius melodus (Piping Plover)

Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)

Pluvialis squatarola (Black-bellied Plover)

Scolopacidae (Sandpipers & Snipes)

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Willet)

Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs)

Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria) (Whipple Hill, 8/20/16 12pm) This bird had greenish-yellow legs (not visible in this photo). It seems a bit south of its normal summer range...

Actitis macularia (Spotted Sandpiper) (Parker Meadow, 8/4/07 6pm)

Gallinago gallinago (Common Snipe)

Scolopax minor (American Woodcock)

Arenaria interpres (Ruddy Turnstone)

Calidris maritima (Purple Sandpiper)

Calidris alpina (Dunlin)

Calidris alba (Sanderling)

Bartramia longicauda (Upland Sandpiper)

Laridae (Gulls, Terns, & Skippers)

Larus atricilla (Laughing Gull)

Larus philadelphia (Bonaparte's Gull)

Larus ridibundus (Common Black-headed Gull)

Larus minutus (Little Gull)

Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)

Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)

Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)

Larus glaucoides (Iceland Gull)

Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)

Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)

Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)

Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)

Sterna dougallii (Roseate Tern)

Sterna antillarum (Least Tern)

Rynchops niger (Black Skimmer)

Stercorariidae (Skuas & Jaegers)

Catharacta skua (Great Skua)

Catharacta maccormicki (South Polar Skua)

Alcidae (Auks & Puffins)

Alca torda (Razorbill)

Uria aalge (Common Murre)

Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)

Alle alle (Dovekie, Little Auk)

Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)

Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)


Unidentified

(Lower Vine Brook, 11/2/08 11am) A hawk...

(Willard's Woods, 7/7/07 3pm)

Melospiza melodiaWillard's Woods (6/24/07 11am) Obviously a sparrow of some sort.

(Willard's Woods, 8/27/09 3pm)

(Whipple Hill, 9/22/07 4pm, Lower Vine Brook, 9/28/13 11am)

(Lower Vine Brook, 7/11/09 1pm) This bird sat above the stream and caught bugs.


Christmas Bird Count 2009

6 Dark-eyed Juncos

5 House Sparrows

4 Cardinals

3 Blue Jays

5 Crows

1 Mourning Dove

3 Goldfinches

1 House Finch

4 Chickadees

4 White-throated Sparrows

2 Tufted Titmice

2 Downy Woodpeckers

1 Robin

1 White-breasted Nuthatch

6 Starlings


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